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Gynec Oncology

Gynec Oncology


Gynecologic cancer could be any kind of cancer, which originates in a woman’s reproductive organs. Generally, gynecological cancers begin in different places within woman’s pelvis, it locates below the stomach and between the hip bones. There are following types of Gynecologic cancers:

  • Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer begins in the cervix. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus.
  • Ovarian Cancer: It begins in the ovaries, which are located on each side of the uterus.
  • Uterine Cancer: Uterine cancer begins in the uterus, the pear-shaped organ in the pelvis.
  • Vaginal Cancer: Vaginal cancer originates in the vagina, which is hollow, a tube-like channel between the bottom of a uterus and outside of the body.


Symptoms or signs of gynecologic cancers are not so specific from each other. Some of them are as follows:
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding which may start and stop between regular menstruation period or after intercourse, douching or pelvic exam, changes in menstruation duration.
  • Loss of appetite or feeling full even after a short meal, diarrhea, constipation or frequent urination.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Postmenopausal bleeding, pain or mass in pelvic area are common symptoms which have been seen in uterine or endometrial cancer.
  • Difficult and painful urination is a common symptom which has been noticed in Gynecologic cancer.
  • Gas, Indigestion and nausea.
  • Symptoms of cervical cancer usually do not appear until abnormal cervical cells become cancerous and invade nearby tissue.


  • Cervical Cancer draws reasons as-Smoking, low fiber diet, use of birth control pills for a long time, having multiple sex partners, pregnancy before the age of 17 yrs.
  • Ovarian cancer may arise because of elder age, infertility, family history of breast or colon cancer.
  • Obesity, diet that is high in animal fat, hormonal imbalance, prior history of breast or ovarian cancer and related treatment may lead to ovarian cancer.
  • Vaginal cancer has been noticed mainly in women who were elder then 70; other reasons may be exposure to DES, HIV or HPV infection, vaginal adenosis or irritation.
Cervical Cancer:
  • Hysterectomy - Removal of uterus, including cervix or some abnormal cells inside the cervix.
  • Pelvic lymph node dissection - Removal of lymph node from pelvis occurs in this surgery.
  • Para-aortic lymphadenectomy - Removal of lymph nodes, which surrounds the aorta.
  • Radiation Therapy& Chemotherapy - Radiation therapy with the combination of chemotherapy can be used for cervical cancer. Combination of internal and external therapies is recommended.
Ovarian Cancer:
  • Hysterectomy, Pelvic lymph node dissection and Para-aortic lymphadenectomy with the combination of radiation and chemotherapy use by oncologist in the Ovarian Cancer.
  • Omentectomy – Removal of momentum, which is a layer of fatty tissue which surrounds lower gastrointestinal tract.
  • By Cytoreduction or debulking, removal of entire visible tumor take place, which includes removal of spleen and gastrointestinal tract organs.
  • Immunotherapy - Immunotherapy uses drugs or vaccine which targets natural defenses so it could kill cancer cells.
Uterine Cancer:
  • As other Gynecological cancer, Hysterectomy, Pelvic lymph node dissection, and Para-aortic lymphadenectomy are suitable for Uterine cancer too.
  • Laparoscopic lymph node sampling- Removal of a lymph node through the laparoscope, which is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen.
  • Sentinel lymph node mapping- In this method oncologist uses fluorescent imaging to identify potentially cancerous lymph nodes.
  • Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, and Immunotherapy can also be given in uterine cancer.
  • In some cases, Hormone therapy also could be given.
Vaginal Cancer:
  • Laser surgery in the process to remove cancer, which includes LEEP (loop electroexcision procedure)
  • Local excision usage.
  • Vaginectomy, to remove all or specific part of the vagina.
  • Radiation therapy: usage of X-rays, gamma rays and charged particles to kill cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy: usage of anticancer drugs.
At Zanish Hospital, we understand that every individual cancer case is unique. Some of the females react very sensitively to symptoms or treatments, some other do not. Expert Oncologists at Zanish Hospital has many years of experience with the selection of treatment therapies, it is an important task for a Gynec Oncologist, as it directly influences patient’s cancer tendency and her health. We take care of each step of cancer treatment so that our every female patient could be recovered from Gynecological cancer.